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This section deals with the human factors in putting on events. It covers:

1) The legal requirement to assess all possible risks and devise strategies to make the risks to everyone as small as possible. This is fully dealt with in the excellent handout published by healthandsafetyfor thearts.com , which is republished with their permission later in this document.

2) The need to create and have available for inspection a set of policies including:

3) You will also need to create a document and method statement for the police which keeps them fully informed about your safety and security measures including the disaster plan and the policies. We have included as an example, Colchester Festival Association's example disaster plan

4) You will need to think about planning routes around the event, entrances and exits, particularly emergency exits. You need to include police,ambulance and fire service access and if the event is remote from habitations, traffic routing through country areas and a helicopter landing area. The Highways department and the Civil Aviation Authority must be consulted early in the process A map is helpful

5) If camping is to be offered, then this needs to be fully planned, with toilets and washing facilities as well as car parking perhaps for as many cars as there are pitches. A wristband system for access to the tent areas is essential for security reasons, and that means fencing, night lighting, and secuirity night and day. You will also need plenty of volunteer stewards and signage

There is some excellent advice for campers on http://www.campingexpert.co.uk/FestivalCamping.html

Stallholders may want to camp in or near their stall, and will almost certainly need at least access for deliveries, if not a parking pitch for stock.

6) "Greenness" This is a whole area of thought, and one we will not go into in any detail at present. There is a web pager by the specialist group A GREENER FESTVAL which has ideas about green issues associated with events including traffic congention, greenhouse gasses, noise pollution, water. land damage andso on. Illuminati's Environmental stalls ethical policy is worth a read.

But you might want to consider

7) Noise. Many Local Authorities now have noise regulations which set out, at a local or national level, restrictions to prevent noise escaping from venues and annoying neighbours whose lives can be ruined by excessive noise. In a typical case of its type, noise from a UK public house, which made a shelf in a nearby home "clearly vibrate", resulted in a £5,000 fine for the pub licensee.

You must acquire a good noise meter and allocate someone with the sole job of walking the perimeter of the site and making measurements and logging them with thetime and place. If the noise is over the set limit for any length of time, then a message must be sent to the person responsible and the level needs to be reduced.The loggging will help settle later disputes.

 

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Risk Assessment and the safety management process – a beginners guide

This document is provided as an aid to understanding. Although it is based on existing health and safety legislation and guidance, it should not be regarded as of legal status or authority. Although every care has been taken in the drawing up of this document, the author can accept no responsibility for, and will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from, the use or content of this document.
© Abigail Cheverst 2008 abigail@healthandsafetyforthearts.com

Introduction to risk assessment:
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations impose the general duty to undertake risk assessments wherever there is a concern about health and safety and as a standard and integral part of the safety management process. The Regulations also state that Risk Assessments should be used as a tool to aid compliance with  Health and Safety Regulations. For example, if a Regulation states that 'sufficient' protection is required you can use a Risk Assessment to determine what is meant by 'sufficient' in a particular circumstance.

Other Health and Safety Regulations impose a duty to conduct specific risk assessments:
The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
The Noise at Work Regulations 2005
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 as amended 2002
The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 as amended 2002
The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 as amended 2002 
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 as amended 2003

Five steps to risk assessment:
Step one: Look for the hazards.
Step two: Decide who might be harmed and how.
Step three: Evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done.
Step four: Record your findings.
Step five: Review your assessment and revisit it if necessary.

Template risk assessment sheet:


HAZARDS IDENTIFIED

EXISTING CONTROL MEASURES

HAZ.
SEV.

LIK.

R.R.

ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES REQUIRED

WHO RESPONSIBLE? HOW TO IMPLEMENT?

Hazard severity = Haz sev.
Likelihood of occurrence = Lik.
Risk rating = RR.

Use any template you feel comfortable with as long as it fits with the five steps.

How the risk assessment sheet relates to the five steps:
(4) Record your findings.

HAZARDS IDENTIFIED (1/2)

EXISTING CONTROL MEASURES (3 -->)

HAZ.
SEV

LIK.

R.R.

ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES REQUIRED

WHO RESPONSIBLE? HOW TO IMPLEMENT?

Look for the hazards.
Decide who might be harmed and how.

 

Evaluate the risks

 

 

“”

 

 

“”

 

 

“”

 

 

Decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done.
(Outline of what needs to be done.)

“”
(Details of implementation.)

 

(5) Review your assessment and revisit it if necessary.

Step one: Look for the hazards
Step two: Decide who might be harmed and how
A Hazard is anything which has the potential to cause harm to people.
A Risk is the likelihood of the harm from a hazard being realised and the extent of it.

In the HAZARDS IDENTIFIED column of the risk assessment you should think about:
What is the hazard.
Who might be harmed by the hazard

For example:
Risk to public from marquee catching fire
Risk to participants from slips and trips caused by uneven road surface
Risk to participants from falling from vehicles
Risk to public from vehicles entering crowd area

To help you identify the potential hazards involved in your activity think carefully about all the people and processes involved. Talk to a range of other people involved in the activity to see what they consider the hazards to be.

You can get further help with identifying hazards from:
Examining relevant HSE publications
Examining manufactures instructions and guidance where relevant
Examining other relevant literature
Trade unions or associations
Health and safety advisers or HSE info line (00845 345 0055.)

Step three: Evaluate the risks
In order to evaluate the risks, first we need to establish the existing control measures.
For example:
Risk to public from marquee catching fire
Existing control measures -
No smoking signs in marquee
Marquees old but made of flame retardant materials
Access to marquee is restricted

Next we need to work out the hazard severity and likelihood of occurrence in order to give us the overall risk rating. I have used High / Medium / Low. Alternatively you can use numbers.

Hazard severity:
(Given the existing control measures in place) If it happens how bad would it be?
Not that bad? (Low) Pretty bad? (Medium) or very bad? (High.)
In the marquee example the hazard severity would be high

likelihood of occurrence:
(Given the existing control measures in place) How likely is it to happen?
Not that bad? (Low) Pretty bad? (Medium) or very bad? (High.)
In the marquee example the likelihood of occurrence would be low

The risk rating is the average of the Hazard severity and the likelihood of occurrence.
In the marquee example the risk rating would be medium

Step three: Decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done
You need to decide whether the existing control measures are sufficient given the risk rating. If not list additional measures here which will reduce the risk to an acceptable level.

Health and safety law requires you to do what is reasonably practicable to protect the health and safety of employees and other persons who may be affected by your activity. Reasonably practical implies a balance between the benefit of an action and its cost. Low risks are generally acceptable – although you should still look at them to see if they can be reduced further. Medium or high risks should be reduced. If you cannot do this you may need to consider changing the work activity or practices to eliminate the hazard.

Use the risk rating to guide you when thinking about control measures. High risk activities will require more immediate and thorough attention than low or medium risk activities. When deciding what control measures are required you should take account of what the law requires you to do (for example, specific Regulations which relate to the risk) and available guidance on good practice (for example, Health and Safety Executive or other guidance.)

The Health and Safety executive has outlined a hierarchy of principles for the application of control measures identified during the process of Risk Assessment:
Avoid the risk
Evaluate risks that cannot be avoided
Combat the risks at source
Adapt the work to the individual
Make technical adaptations as appropriate
Replace dangerous work with non-dangerous or less dangerous work
Develop a prevention policy
Give priority to collective prevention measures
Provide instruction as appropriate

In our marquee example we might come up with the following list of additional control measures required:
Investigate if flame retardancy standard of marquee (BSS) is still up to date and report back to committee
Locate steward in marquee to monitor no smoking, storage of material and electrical equipment use. 

In the final section of the assessment you should state who is responsible and give a final date for completion. Also state the 'how' if relevant.
For example, for the first control measure above:
M Higgins through web research / contact BSS by 12.012.08.

Step four: Record your findings
Employers with more than 5 employees must record their risk assessments in writing, however, it is good practice and sound safety management for everyone to make a written record of their risk assessments.

Step five: Review your assessment and revisit it if necessary
Risk assessments should be reviewed (looked at again and changed if necessary) where there has been a significant change or where there is some other reason to believe that the assessment may no longer be valid. Even where you are aware of no reason to review the assessment it should still be reviewed annually to ensure that it is still relevant, up to date and effective.

When reviewing a risk assessment you should look for evidence of the effectiveness of the control measures identified. A good way to do this is through looking at what accidents, injuries and other incidents have been reported and by talking to people involved with the activity in question. A risk assessment that is not proving effective will need to be looked at again.

Example risk assessment:

 

HAZARDS IDENTIFIED

 

EXISTING CONTROL MEASURES

 

HAZ.
SEV.

 

LIK.

 

R.R.

 

ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES REQUIRED

 

WHO RESPONSIBLE? HOW TO IMPLEMENT?

Risk to public from marquee catching fire

No smoking signs in marquee
Marquees old but made of flame retardant materials
Access to marquee is restricted

High

Low

Med

Investigate if flame retardancy standard of marquee (BSS) is still up to date and report back to committee

Locate steward in marquee to monitor no smoking, storage of material and electrical equipment use

M Higgins through web research / contact BSS by 12.012.08

 

Site manager to incorporate into steward allocation plan by 11.11.08

This document is provided as an aid to understanding. Although it is based on existing health and safety legislation and guidance, it should not be regarded as of legal status or authority.  Although every care has been taken in the drawing up of this document, the author can accept no responsibility for, and will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from, the use or content of this document.
© Abigail Cheverst 2008 abigail@healthandsafetyforthearts.com